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To add a currency to the database, the user has to specify a collection of information that includes the currency name, country, abbreviation, and value relative to the U.S. dollar. Scountry String, name of country in form South Africa . Sname String, name of currency in form Rand . Sabbreviation String, Oanda.com abbreviation in form ZAR . SxRate Real, value of currency relative to United States Dollar. The xRate is the ratio by which you multiply one USD to get one of the currency represented by the row. If a unit of currency is worth half as much as a USD, its xRate is 0.50.
The basic attributes are entered via the Edit Store icon or the Store Edit Store menu. There you change the currency and specify the minimum purchase order value for your store. In addition, you can specify a minimum amount for free shipping if you select a value of zero here, nothing is dispatched free of charge. The next attributes control the display format for prices. The US convention is the (Dollar) as the Currency symbol, 2 (two) places after the decimal, . (period) as the Decimal symbol, and , (comma) as thousands separator. The format also controls how positive and negative amounts are represented. Description is the description of the shop itself. Terms of Service are the normal business terms of the shop and are, of course, absolutely necessary they have to be made available to the buyer at any time. The simplest way to do this is by using a permanent link. During the order procedure, the buyers have to confirm the terms once again. Figure 5.12 Basic store information...
get locale-specific currency formatting information a localeconv() figure out where to put the currency symbol and positive or negative signs currency_symbol a 'currency_symbol' currency_symbol a sign_symbol . currency_symbol elseif (4 a sign_posn ) currency_symbol . a sign_symbol currency symbol in front if ( a sep_by_space ) amt currency_symbol.' '. amt else amt currency_symbol. amt currency symbol after amount if ( a sep_by_space ) amt . ' '. currency_symbol else amt . currency_symbol The code in pc_format_currency( ) that puts the currency symbol and sign in the correct place is almost identical for positive and negative amounts it just uses different elements of the array returned by localeconv( ) . The relevant elements of localeconv( ) 's returned array are shown in Table 16-1. Table 16-1. Currency-related information from localeconv( ) currency symbol Local currency symbol 1 if currency symbol should precede a positive value, 0 if it should follow 1 if a space should separate...
Returns a string that represents the currency that's passed as an argument to the method, given the locale. The currency expressed as a number, such as 1.50, 1,200.50, or 1,000. The locale to use when interpreting the currency. A three-digit international currency code to use, as defined by the ISO 4217 standard.
As it happens, a Web service that does what we want exists on XMethods, a site dedicated to Web services experimentation. It's called Currency Exchange Rate, and was implemented in GLUE (a Java utility) by the XMethods staff. You can reach its description page (which has a long, truly ugly URL) via the XMethods home page http www.xmethods.net. Its documentation indicates that the Currency Exchange Rate service takes two parameters Two country names in string form. This is a bit inconvenient it means we have to send strings like great britain and Singapore instead of terse, standardized currency abbreviations like GBP and SGD but it's a constraint we can deal with easily, because the names of countries appear in Currawong's currencies table. The returned value is a number of type float (a real number). The best way to get a feel for what the Currency Exchange Rate service expects is to play with it under the SOAPscope. The SOAPscope is a handy online utility provided by a company...
In the case of the Currency Exchange Service at XMethods, the relevant WSDL document is available here currency.wsdl 10.3 Making Use of the Web Service 259 coperation name getRate Returns the exchange rate between the two currenc ie s defines the service being described as of the CurrencyExchangePortType. What's that It's defined in this WSDL document, too coperation name getRate
You may recall from Chapter 6, in which we set up the database, that the ACCT_currencies table contains a column called xRate, which is meant to hold the ratio of the value of the listed currency to the U.S. dollar (meaning that the value of xRate for the Australian dollar, which is worth 72 U.S. cents at this writing, would be 0.72). We want to write a PHP program that makes use of the XMethods Currency Exchange service to populate the xRate column for all listed currencies automatically, in response to a call to a URL from the Currawong Accounting navigation bar. echo Updating currency exchange rates. n Ssoapclient new soapclient('Currency.wsdl','wsdl') echo Updating currency exchange rates. n It pops Sresult (the two-dimensional array containing currency information from the database) into a foreach loop, examining each returned row individually. It extracts the name of the country and the name of the currency from the current row and uses them to generate a status message...
PHP applications, usually manipulate data. In many cases, changes to one piece of data can affect many different parts of your application's code. For example, the price of each product item displayed on an e-commerce site in the customer's local currency is affected by the current exchange rate. Now, assume that each product item is represented by a PHP object that most likely originates from a database the exchange rate itself is most probably being taken from a different source and is not part of the item's database entry. Let's also assume that each such object has a display() method that outputs the HTML relevant to this product. The observer pattern allows for objects to register on certain events and or data, and when such an event or change in data occurs, it is automatically notified. In this way, you could develop the product item to be an observer on the currency exchange rate, and before printing out the list of items, you could trigger an event that updates all the...
The ACCT_bank_account table is interesting in that it is the first table in this database with foreign keys. A bank account, of course, is associated with a financial institution, a currency, and an account type. Those relationships are reflected in the table definition statement shown here 'currency' int NOT NULL DEFAULT , INDEX (currency), FOREIGN KEY (currency)
Let's now take a quick break from all this theory and try applying some of it to a practical, real-world project a currency converter for dollars into euros. This project will apply some of what you've learned in previous sections about variables, constants, and arithmetic operators it'll also come in handy the next time you jet off to Europe on vacation Here's the code (convert.php) Project 2-1 USD EUR Currency Conversion Project 2-1 USD EUR Currency Conversion
'Currency' echo subarray 'currency' echo '' For each account, get relevant currency xRate -- the latest in the application's currency table, echo '' Sparameters arrayO Sparameters 'id' subarray 'currencyld' Ssoapclient new soapclient('http ' . SaccessorHost . Sresult Sparameters) That yields the account's balance in its native currency. Notice that 0 is added to the balance figure so that something is displayed in the event that the balance comes back null, and that roundQ is used to make sure that two decimal places are displayed. Further queries yield the relative value of the account's native currency to the U.S. dollar Sparameters 'id' subarray 'currencyld' Ssoapclient new soapclient('http ' . SaccessorHost . Sresult Sparameters)
UrlVariables.business pp_business urlVariables.item_name pp_item_name urlVariables.item_number pp_item_number urlVariables.amount pp_amount urlVariables.currency_code pp_currency urlVariables.weight pp_weight urlVariables.weight_unit pp_weight_unit urlVariables.lc pp_location
The Web makes it incredibly easy for you to communicate your message to anybody with an Internet connection and a Web browser, no matter if they're sitting in a cafe in Moscow's Red Square, in a farmhouse in Ohio, in a cubicle in a Shanghai high-rise, or in an Israeli classroom. Except there is one tiny issue only about 29 percent of the total Internet population actually speaks English.1 The rest speak Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, German, French, or one of several dozen other languages. Therefore, if you're interested in truly reaching a global audience, you need to think about creating a Web site conforming to not only the visitor's native language, but also standards (most prevalently, currency, dates, numbers, and times).
As mentioned in Section 2.2, floating-point numbers are stored internally in such a way that they could be slightly different than their assigned value. For example, 50.0 could be stored internally as 50.00000002. To test whether two floating-point numbers are equal, check whether the two numbers differ by less than some acceptably small threshold instead of using the equality operator. For example, if you are comparing currency amounts, then an acceptable threshold would be 0.00001. Example 3-9 demonstrates how to compare two floating point numbers.
Unlike Quicken and Microsoft Money, though, our customer requires that his solution be able to distinguish among a large number of currencies, and be able to present reports that summarize activities across all accounts in terms of any selected currency. All currency conversions should be performed automatically, with information taken from public resources on the Internet.
To localize a web site, or in other words, to make the site content fit the language, number system, currency, and other standards of visitors, use the L10n utility. For example, if a user in Spain were to need the application, you might want to translate some important titles, buttons, links, and other strings into Spanish. To do so, you must first set up Spanish locales or locale files for L10n to use in translation.
'cmd value _xclick 'business value email_address 'item_name value item_name 'item_number value item_number 'amount value item_amount ' currency_code value USD 'weight value 1 'weight_unit value lbs 'lc value US var urlVariables URLVariables new URLVariables() urlVariables.cmd pp_cmd urlVariables.business pp_business urlVariables.item_name pp_item_name urlVariables.item_number pp_item_number urlVariables.amount pp_amount urlVariables.currency_code pp_currency urlVariables.weight pp_weight urlVariables.weight_unit pp_weight_unit urlVariables.lc pp_location
Throughout this chapter, and indeed this book, the Americanized temporal and monetary formats have been commonly used, such as 04-12-07 and 2,600.93. However, other parts of the world use different date and time formats, currencies, and even character sets. Given the Internet's global reach, you may have to create an application that's capable of adhering to foreign, or localized, formats. In fact, neglecting to do so can cause considerable confusion. For instance, suppose you are going to create a Web site that books reservations for a hotel in Orlando, Florida. This particular hotel is popular among citizens of various countries, so you decide to create several localized versions of the site. How should you deal with the fact that most countries use their own currency and date formats, not to mention different languages While you could go to the trouble of creating a tedious method of managing such matters, it likely would be error-prone and take some time to deploy. Thankfully, PHP...
There's only one DELETE-centric function in the entire accounting application. It exists for the purpose of eliminating individual transactions. The logic is that a transaction might be entered in error and need to be deleted, but a currency, institution, or payee could be referenced in other tables and therefore needs to exist long after it stopped being in active service.
Because Currawong Accounting is meant to run on a Web server, it will have access to all sorts of resources on the public Internet. Among these Web services that give information on currency exchange rates. The elsewhere layer of Currawong Accounting queries one of these services in order to discover the relative values of the currencies the application tracks.
Scountry String, name of country in form South Africa . Sname String, name of currency in form Rand . abbreviation String, Oanda.com abbreviation in form ZAR . SxRate Real, value of currency relative to United States Dollar. The xRate is the ratio by which you multiply one USD to get one of the currency represented by the row. If a unit of currency is worth half as much as a USD, its xRate is 0.50.
This is a simple helper for dealing with number formats. From currency formatting to making memory file sizes readable, the Number helper condenses some common tasks into some handy helper functions. If your application must deal in multiple number formats or if it must display file sizes, then give some of the functions listed in Table 9-7 a try. To include this helper in the application, use this number- currency() Formats a floating-point integer into a currency format
That's a useful thing when it comes to solving the currency-update problem we're facing in Currawong Accounting. If we could find the right Web service, we could just send it a properly formatted request and expect the exchange rate we want to come back in an XML message. Whole libraries of Web services exist again, plenty of them free for anyone to use and we'll probably be able to find one that does what we want.
Output formatting is an important aspect of application design. This chapter highlighted the important MySQL and PHP functions in this category. It taught you how to pad and concatenate string values, change case, and handle special characters and embedded HTML. Next, this chapter discussed formatting numeric data, with examples and information on breaking up large values with separators, rounding and truncating floating-point values, and attaching local and international currency symbols to numbers. Finally, it showed you the numerous date time display options available, and demonstrated how to break a large result set into separate pages for greater readability.
Sometimes you'll want to change how many digits appear after a decimal point for a real (floating-point) number. This is especially true if you need to print in currency format. To specify the number of digits to use after the decimal point, use a conversion specifier that has a decimal point after the percentage sign followed by the number of decimals. For example, the following code shows you how to do it Example 11-9 shows a value of 42.4242 set to display as currency.
Suppose we have a program on the business-logic layer of a multi-tier application. It's called updateCurrencies.php, and one of its functions needs to access a remote Web service (on a public-resource site called XMethods.net) to get the exchange rates of various currencies. The module in the business-logic layer can send out the names of two countries, and expects in return a real number (a float) that indicates the ratio of the value of the first country's currency to the value of the second country's currency.
These settings describe the preferred format of currency information, such as what character to use as a decimal point and how to indicate negative amounts. Different techniques are necessary for correct localization of plain text, dates and times, and currency. Localization can also be applied to external entities your program uses, such as images and included files. Localizing these kinds of content is covered in Section 16.5 through Section 16.9.
The next section of the book is a series of chapters on other features and extensions of PHP that provide a lot of useful functionality. These are recipes that help you build applications that are more robust, secure, user-friendly, and efficient. Chapter 13 covers regular expressions, including matching a valid email address, capturing text inside of HTML tags, and using greedy or non-greedy matching. Chapter 14 discusses encryption, including generating and storing passwords, sharing encrypted data with others, storing encrypted data in a file or database, and using SSL. Chapter 15 shows you how to create graphics, with recipes on drawing text, lines, polygons, and curves. Chapter 16 helps you make your applications globally friendly and includes recipes on using locales and localizing text, dates and times, currency values, and images. Chapter 17 discusses network-related tasks, like reading and sending email messages and newsgroup posts, using FTP and LDAP, and doing DNS and Whois...
Software as a service Imagine building an e-commerce application that requires a means for converting currency among various exchange rates. However, rather than take it upon yourself to devise some means for automatically scraping the Federal Reserve Bank's Web page for the daily released rate, you instead take advantage of its (hypothetical) Web Service for retrieving these values. The result is far more readable code, with much less chance for error from presentational changes on the Web page.
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